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LESSONS FROM LEBANON

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I was watching midday BBC World News on August 4 when the visuals of an explosion were flashed on screen as ‘breaking news’. It was repeated several times with black billowing clouds suddenly engulfed and obliterated by a mushroom shaped huge expanse of white smoke with flames below rising higher. The noise was thunderous. It was the horrendous explosion in Beirut on 3 August.

Then I read the article in the New York Times the next day by Faysal Itani, deputy director at the Center for Global Policy and adjunct professor of Middle East politics at Georgetown University. He is a Lebanese who worked in the country before migrating to the US. In the article he lays out “the incompetence, negligence and sheer bad luck” that allowed this disaster to happen. Reading it, parallels to Sri Lanka were apparent to me. I quote parts of his article below. Within the quotes you will find interpolations in parentheses reminding you of similar situations/incidents in our country. I point out similarities with fear invading me and hope they will be reduced if not obliterated with a powerful government newly installed. Obvious differences exist, of course, which I do not mention.

Similar to Sri Lanka, Lebanon is a developing emerging country with its economy mainly service-based on tourism, and imports outweighing exports. Oil and gas exploration were intensified in 2020. Very importantly a significant similarity exists that both countries have recently emerged from internal strife – our 28-year civil war and Lebanon’s multi-faceted civil strife from 1975 to 1990. This weakened institutions and the rule of law in both countries, compounded by simmering racial and religious tensions. Lebanon’s geopolitical position causes it to face more problems than us.

Consequences of explosion and

other disasters

Itani asks the pertinent question in the title of his article: “Why Did Lebanon Let a Bomb-in-Waiting Sit in a Warehouse for Six Years?” He replies his own question: “Yesterday’s explosion, which destroyed Beirut’s port, much of the city and countless lives, was the result of business as usual. Ports are prime real estate for political, criminal and militia factions. Multiple security agencies with different levels of competence and different political allegiances control various aspects of their operations.” (Parallel 1: so true about SL. Within the last eight years since the Mahinda Rajapaksa Magampura Port or simply – the Hambantota Harbour – was built, immense problems of debt servicing to the Chinese for the massive construction with no ships docking, resulted in leasing it out by the Yahapalanaya government. This was heavily criticized by the Rajapaksa faction. Now- what? Even the need to lease out parts of the Colombo Port are being fiercely protested. Recently a strong protest was mounted by port workers. We have hopes that under President Gotabaya Rajapaksa some sensible arrangements will ensue).

Writes Itani: “By all appearances the port disaster did not involve the usual suspects — Hezbollah, Israel, jihadist terrorism or the government of neighboring Syria. The truth seems to be both duller and more disturbing: decades of rot at every level of Lebanon’s institutions.” (Parallel 2: loss of confidence in our governments and slow destruction of systems such as rule of law. A much lauded attempt of correction of course was attempted with much approval and cheering in 2015 which failed abysmally, mostly due to clash of leading personalities. Corruption at all levels increased through the years. We too suffered jihadist terrorism last year).

“So far, Lebanese officials are in agreement about what happened, though it’s likely that more than one ‘official’ account will emerge. After all, this is Lebanon, a country deeply divided by politics, religion and history. But here is what we know as of now: some 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate unloaded from a disabled vessel in 2014 had been stored in a port warehouse. Then yesterday, a welding accident ignited nearby fireworks — which caused the ammonium nitrate to explode” (Parallel 3: Loads of imported garbage lie in the port of Colombo and elsewhere expecting ‘return to sending country’. No action so far! Waiting for a blowup or polluting dispersal in the sea? Also that comment on being deeply divided is so true of our population by politics, race and religion, with power grabbed by the yellow robed and the latest hoisting of the idea of Sinhala Buddhist supremacy).

Further itemization of mismanagement in Lebanon by Itani goes thus: “And recruitment in the civilian bureaucracy is dictated by political or sectarian quotas. There is a pervasive culture of negligence, petty corruption and blame-shifting endemic to the Lebanese bureaucracy, all overseen by a political class defined by its incompetence and contempt for the public good.” (Parallel 4: Our public service is bursting at the seams due to recruitment of persons promoted by politicians. Hardly manageable in salary payments. Corruption, mismanagement, interference by politicians all across Sri Lankan systems, is pandemic. These are huge blots in the nation’s fabric, all too well seen but not remedied. Hope springs in optimistic hearts that the new government will curb its members and they will be made to work hard for the good of the country which is in a dire state due to previous political pests).

“The catastrophe, while exceptionally severe, is the result of business as usual in Lebanon.” (Parallel 5: The suicide bomb blasts of Easter Sunday 2019 by Muslim fanatics seems to be a result of ‘business as usual’ – going easy, taking things trivially, infighting and then passing the buck of blame. In spite of expressed apprehension and reliable warning, the non-cooperation of the then President and PM and thus lack of alertness on the part of others, innocents were killed; though it was preventable. Irresponsibility was starkly evident. President Gotabaya has sought help from the armed forces and given them high posts in the bureaucracy. Vice and terror are being eradicated. We hope it ends in security for all).

Itani also mentions disasters caused by failures in public services and a garbage crisis and environmental catastrophes. (Here is Parallel 6: a severe garbage crisis opened the eyes of Sri Lankans to haphazard dumping of solid waste when a mountain of dumped rubbish descended to cause many deaths in Meetotamulla. The garbage crisis is not solved as yet. Marine pollution goes on apace. It is mentioned that the Cabinet will be small – 26 to 30. That would surely have a single minister in charge of environmental issues and of forests, wild life, nature reserves et al so that both elephants and villagers could be spared death an injury and deforestation stemmed. The much prevalent passing the buck and top bureaucrats not making decisions MUST cease forthwith)

In Lebanon “The consequences of yesterday’s explosion will be even more serious than the immediate casualties and property damage. The main grain silo, which holds 85% of the country’s cereals, was destroyed. Even more, the port will no longer be able to receive goods. Lebanon imports 80% of what it consumes, including 90% of its staple wheat. (Our case is much less dire; we are to an extent self sufficient in rice and many imports are being banned – very good! But we have a fertilizer problem fermenting; agriculture and our farmers are not given due government attention nor are their grievances looked into and alleviation attempted. We hope, as promised, the new government will redress the issues faced by agriculture in this land and farmers helped).

Faysal Itani ends his article querying: “Will there be a revolution? An uprising of anger? … Yet there has never been more urgency for reform and accountability, beyond the likely scapegoating of mid-level officials. It is difficult to imagine such a concerted, sustained national movement because it has never materialized. But hunger and a collapse in health care may change that.  Yesterday’s explosion made clear that Lebanon is no longer a country where decent people can live secure and fulfilling lives.” The protests have already ignited in Lebanon. (Problem 7 with solution: Very relevant. Our country needs severe improvement; a creasing out of corruption and nepotism; a vast reduction in the perception of unlimited power believed in by politicians and Cabinet Ministers that has been exhibited in previous years. We have examples to look back to of the immediate years after independence when politicians acted as they should. Our hope is that the President, who is a disciplined person, will curb Ministers. The Prime Minister needs to be just and controlling too. Government servants must work honestly and there must not be undue influence on them by politicians. We are too tame a population to mass protest or rise up all together in anger. We earnestly hope that a just government will manage the country well and corruption will be wiped out. It can be done, and must be. All officials and politicians must work for the country and its people, not for a Party, family or themselves.

 


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Islamophobia and the threat to democratic development

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There’s an ill more dangerous and pervasive than the Coronavirus that’s currently sweeping Sri Lanka. That is the fear to express one’s convictions. Across the public sector of the country in particular many persons holding high office are stringently regulating and controlling the voices of their consciences and this bodes ill for all and the country.

The corrupting impact of fear was discussed in this column a couple of weeks ago when dealing with the military coup in Myanmar. It stands to the enduring credit of ousted Myanmarese Head of Government Aung San Suu Kyi that she, perhaps for the first time in the history of modern political thought, singled out fear, and not power, as the principal cause of corruption within the individual; powerful or otherwise.

To be sure, power corrupts but the corrupting impact of fear is graver and more devastating. For instance, the fear in a person holding ministerial office or in a senior public sector official, that he would lose position and power as a result of speaking out his convictions and sincere beliefs on matters of the first importance, would lead to a country’s ills going unaddressed and uncorrected.

Besides, the individual concerned would be devaluing himself in the eyes of all irrevocably and revealing himself to be a person who would be willing to compromise his moral integrity for petty worldly gain or a ‘mess of pottage’. This happens all the while in Lankan public life. Some of those who have wielded and are wielding immense power in Sri Lanka leave very much to be desired from these standards.

It could be said that fear has prevented Sri Lanka from growing in every vital respect over the decades and has earned for itself the notoriety of being a directionless country.

All these ills and more are contained in the current controversy in Sri Lanka over the disposal of the bodies of Covid victims, for example. The Sri Lankan polity has no choice but to abide by scientific advice on this question. Since authorities of the standing of even the WHO have declared that the burial of the bodies of those dying of Covid could not prove to be injurious to the wider public, the Sri Lankan health authorities could go ahead and sanction the burying of the bodies concerned. What’s preventing the local authorities from taking this course since they claim to be on the side of science? Who or what are they fearing? This is the issue that’s crying out to be probed and answered.

Considering the need for absolute truthfulness and honesty on the part of all relevant persons and quarters in matters such as these, the latter have no choice but to resign from their positions if they are prevented from following the dictates of their consciences. If they are firmly convinced that burials could bring no harm, they are obliged to take up the position that burials should be allowed.

If any ‘higher authority’ is preventing them from allowing burials, our ministers and officials are conscience-bound to renounce their positions in protest, rather than behave compromisingly and engage in ‘double think’ and ‘double talk’. By adopting the latter course they are helping none but keeping the country in a state of chronic uncertainty, which is a handy recipe for social instabiliy and division.

In the Sri Lankan context, the failure on the part of the quarters that matter to follow scientific advice on the burials question could result in the aggravation of Islamophobia, or hatred of the practitioners of Islam, in the country. Sri Lanka could do without this latter phobia and hatred on account of its implications for national stability and development. The 30 year war against separatist forces was all about the prevention by military means of ‘nation-breaking’. The disastrous results for Sri Lanka from this war are continuing to weigh it down and are part of the international offensive against Sri Lanka in the UNHCR.

However, Islamophobia is an almost world wide phenomenon. It was greatly strengthened during Donald Trump’s presidential tenure in the US. While in office Trump resorted to the divisive ruling strategy of quite a few populist authoritarian rulers of the South. Essentially, the manoeuvre is to divide and rule by pandering to the racial prejudices of majority communities.

It has happened continually in Sri Lanka. In the initial post-independence years and for several decades after, it was a case of some populist politicians of the South whipping-up anti-Tamil sentiments. Some Tamil politicians did likewise in respect of the majority community. No doubt, both such quarters have done Sri Lanka immeasurable harm. By failing to follow scientific advice on the burial question and by not doing what is right, Sri Lanka’s current authorities are opening themselves to the charge that they are pandering to religious extremists among the majority community.

The murderous, destructive course of action adopted by some extremist sections among Muslim communities world wide, including of course Sri Lanka, has not earned the condemnation it deserves from moderate Muslims who make-up the preponderant majority in the Muslim community. It is up to moderate opinion in the latter collectivity to come out more strongly and persuasively against religious extremists in their midst. It will prove to have a cementing and unifying impact among communities.

It is not sufficiently appreciated by governments in the global South in particular that by voicing for religious and racial unity and by working consistently towards it, they would be strengthening democratic development, which is an essential condition for a country’s growth in all senses.

A ‘divided house’ is doomed to fall; this is the lesson of history. ‘National security’ cannot be had without human security and peaceful living among communities is central to the latter. There cannot be any ‘double talk’ or ‘politically correct’ opinions on this question. Truth and falsehood are the only valid categories of thought and speech.

Those in authority everywhere claiming to be democratic need to adopt a scientific outlook on this issue as well. Studies conducted on plural societies in South Asia, for example, reveal that the promotion of friendly, cordial ties among communities invariably brings about healing among estranged groups and produces social peace. This is the truth that is waiting to be acted upon.

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Pakistan’s love of Sri Lanka

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By Sanjeewa Jayaweera

It was on 3rd January 1972 that our family arrived in Karachi from Moscow. Our departure from Moscow had been delayed for a few weeks due to the military confrontation between Pakistan and India. It ended on 16th December 1971. After that, international flights were not permitted for some time.

The contrast between Moscow and Karachi was unbelievable. First and foremost, Moscow’s temperature was near minus 40 degrees centigrade, while in Karachi, it was sunny and a warm 28 degrees centigrade. However, what struck us most was the extreme warmth with which the airport authorities greeted our family. As my father was a diplomat, we were quickly ushered to the airport’s VIP Lounge. We were in transit on our way to Rawalpindi, the airport serving the capital of Islamabad.

We quickly realized that the word “we are from Sri Lanka” opened all doors just as saying “open sesame” gained entry to Aladdin’s cave! The broad smile, extreme courtesy, and genuine warmth we received from the Pakistani people were unbelievable.

This was all to do with Mrs Sirima Bandaranaike’s decision to allow Pakistani aircraft to land in Colombo to refuel on the way to Dhaka in East Pakistan during the military confrontation between Pakistan and India. It was a brave decision by Mrs Bandaranaike (Mrs B), and the successive governments and Sri Lanka people are still enjoying the fruits of it. Pakistan has been a steadfast and loyal supporter of our country. They have come to our assistance time and again in times of great need when many have turned their back on us. They have indeed been an “all-weather” friend of our country.

Getting back to 1972, I was an early beneficiary of Pakistani people’s love for Sri Lankans. I failed the entrance exam to gain entry to the only English medium school in Islamabad! However, when I met the Principal, along with my father, he said, “Sanjeewa, although you failed the entrance exam, I will this time make an exception as Sri Lankans are our dear friends.” After that, the joke around the family dinner table was that I owed my education in Pakistan to Mrs B!

At school, my brother and I were extended a warm welcome and always greeted “our good friends from Sri Lanka.” I felt when playing cricket for our college; our runs were cheered more loudly than of others.

One particular incident that I remember well was when the Embassy received a telex from the Foreign inistry. It requested that our High Commissioner seek an immediate meeting with the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mr Zulifikar Ali Bhutto (ZB), and convey a message from Mrs B. The message requested that an urgent shipment of rice be dispatched to Sri Lanka as there would be an imminent rice shortage. As the Ambassador was not in the station, the responsibility devolved on my father.

It usually takes about a week or more to get an audience with the Prime Minister (PM) of a foreign country due to their busy schedule. However, given the urgency, my father spoke to the Foreign Ministry’s Permanent Sectary, who fortunately was our neighbour and sought an urgent appointment. My father received a call from the PM’s secretary around 10 P.M asking him to come over to the PM’s residence. My father met ZB around midnight. ZB was about to retire to bed and, as such, was in his pyjamas and gown enjoying a cigar! He had greeted my father and had asked, “Mr Jayaweera, what can we do for great friend Madam Bandaranaike?. My father conveyed the message from Colombo and quietly mentioned that there would be riots in the country if there is no rice!

ZB had immediately got the Food Commissioner of Pakistan on the line and said, “I want a shipload of rice to be in Colombo within the next 72 hours!” The Food Commissioner reverted within a few minutes, saying that nothing was available and the last export shipment had left the port only a few hours ago to another country. ZB had instructed to turn the ship around and send it to Colombo. This despite protests from the Food Commissioner about terms and conditions of the Letter of Credit prohibiting non-delivery. Sri Lanka got its delivery of rice!

The next was the visit of Mrs B to Pakistan. On arrival in Rawalpindi airport, she was given a hero’s welcome, which Pakistan had previously only offered to President Gaddafi of Libya, who financially backed Pakistan with his oil money. That day, I missed school and accompanied my parents to the airport. On our way, we witnessed thousands of people had gathered by the roadside to welcome Mrs B.

When we walked to the airport’s tarmac, thousands of people were standing in temporary stands waving Sri Lanka and Pakistan flags and chanting “Sri Lanka Pakistan Zindabad.” The noise emanating from the crowd was as loud and passionate as the cheering that the Pakistani cricket team received during a test match. It was electric!

I believe she was only the second head of state given the privilege of addressing both assemblies of Parliament. The other being Gaddafi. There was genuine affection from Mrs B amongst the people of Pakistan.

I always remember the indefatigable efforts of Mr Abdul Haffez Kardar, a cabinet minister and the President of the Pakistan Cricket Board. From around 1973 onwards, he passionately championed Sri Lanka’s cause to be admitted as a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) and granted test status. Every year, he would propose at the ICC’s annual meeting, but England and Australia’s veto kept us out until 1981.

I always felt that our Cricket Board made a mistake by not inviting Pakistan to play our inaugural test match. We should have appreciated Mr Kardar and Pakistan’s efforts. In 1974 the Pakistan board invited our team for a tour involving three test matches and a few first-class games. Most of those who played in our first test match was part of that tour, and no doubt gained significant exposure playing against a highly talented Pakistani team.

Several Pakistani greats were part of the Pakistan and India team that played a match soon after the Central Bank bomb in Colombo to prove that it was safe to play cricket in Colombo. It was a magnificent gesture by both Pakistan and India. Our greatest cricket triumph was in Pakistan when we won the World Cup in 1996. I am sure the players and those who watched the match on TV will remember the passionate support our team received that night from the Pakistani crowd. It was like playing at home!

I also recall reading about how the Pakistani government air freighted several Multi Barrell artillery guns and ammunition to Sri Lanka when the A rmy camp in Jaffna was under severe threat from the LTTE. This was even more important than the shipload of rice that ZB sent. This was crucial as most other countries refused to sell arms to our country during the war.

Time and again, Pakistan has steadfastly supported our country’s cause at the UNHCR. No doubt this year, too, their diplomats will work tirelessly to assist our country.

We extend a warm welcome to Mr Imran Khan, the Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is a truly inspirational individual who was undoubtedly an excellent cricketer. Since retirement from cricket, he has decided to get involved in politics, and after several years of patiently building up his support base, he won the last parliamentary elections. I hope that just as much as he galvanized Sri Lankan cricketers, his political journey would act as a catalyst for people like Kumar Sangakkara and Mahela Jayawardene to get involved in politics. Cricket has been called a “gentleman’s game.” Whilst politics is far from it!.

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Covid-19 health rules disregarded at entertainment venues?

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Believe me, seeing certain videos, on social media, depicting action, on the dance floor, at some of these entertainment venues, got me wondering whether this Coronavirus pandemic is REAL!

To those having a good time, at these particular venues, and, I guess, the management, as well, what the world is experiencing now doesn’t seem to be their concerned.

Obviously, such irresponsible behaviour could create more problems for those who are battling to halt the spread of Covid-19, and the new viriant of Covid, in our part of the world.

The videos, on display, on social media, show certain venues, packed to capacity – with hardly anyone wearing a mask, and social distancing…only a dream..

How can one think of social distancing while gyrating, on a dance floor, that is over crowded!

If this trend continues, it wouldn’t be a surprise if Coronavirus makes its presence felt…at such venues.

And, then, what happens to the entertainment scene, and those involved in this field, especially the musicians? No work, whatsoever!

Lots of countries have closed nightclubs, and venues, where people gather, in order to curtail the spread of this deadly virus that has already claimed the lives of thousands.

Thailand did it and the country is still having lots of restrictions, where entertainment is concerned, and that is probably the reason why Thailand has been able to control the spread of the Coronavirus.

With a population of over 69 million, they have had (so far), a little over 25,000 cases, and 83 deaths, while we, with a population of around 21 million, have over 80,000 cases, and more than 450 deaths.

I’m not saying we should do away with entertainment – totally – but we need to follow a format, connected with the ‘new normal,’ where masks and social distancing are mandatory requirements at these venues. And, dancing, I believe, should be banned, at least temporarily, as one can’t maintain the required social distance, while on the dance floor, especially after drinks.

Police spokesman DIG Ajith Rohana keeps emphasising, on TV, radio, and in the newspapers, the need to adhere to the health regulations, now in force, and that those who fail to do so would be penalised.

He has also stated that plainclothes officers would move around to apprehend such offenders.

Perhaps, he should instruct his officers to pay surprise visits to some of these entertainment venues.

He would certainly have more than a bus load of offenders to be whisked off for PCR/Rapid Antigen tests!

I need to quote what Dr. H.T. Wickremasinghe said in his article, published in The Island of Tuesday, February 16th, 2021:

“…let me conclude, while emphasising the need to continue our general public health measures, such as wearing masks, social distancing, and avoiding crowded gatherings, to reduce the risk of contact with an infected person.

“There is no science to beat common sense.”

But…do some of our folks have this thing called COMMON SENSE!

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