by Dr Sarala Fernando
The visit to Sri Lanka by US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has been amply analyzed in the press, commenting on its timing, agenda and impact on domestic public opinion. Mr Pompeo’s warm words of friendship “the US seeks to strengthen partnerships with democratic, peaceful, prosperous and fully sovereign Sri Lanka” reminded me of my first posting as a young diplomat to Washington D.C. in 1977. There, the State Department desk officer for Sri Lanka mentioned that they regarded Sri Lanka as an “unreliable” country, the only country against which Congressional sanctions had been imposed, stopping all US aid, namely the Hickenlooper Amendment and the Battle Act in the 1960’s, for nationalizing the foreign oil companies and trading with an “enemy” nation (China). These remarks by the desk officer showed scant respect for the sovereignty of small countries and unwarranted given the history of US-China relations, when by 1970-1971 President Nixon had taken the initiative to contact Beijing with which it had had no relations for 25 years and finally made that historic visit to Beijing to normalize relations in Feb 1972.
By way of contrast, elsewhere in the world, Sri Lanka has earned a solid reputation for its non-aligned foreign policy and a reliable all-weather friend, which has earned valuable reciprocation over the years . The best known examples include standing by Japan at the San Francisco Peace talks, standing with China even if it meant the loss of US aid, and support to Vietnam during the years of the US led war. I remember Vice President Binh, when I presented credentials in Vietnam in the late 1990’s , having warm words of friendship for Mrs Sirimavo Bandaranaike and Sri Lanka’s support during the difficult war time years. In the 1980’s as a young diplomat in Kenya, so many times I would meet friendship and warm smiles from people of different levels in society, as Mrs Bandaranaike was remembered as the world’s first woman prime minister, Chair of the Non Aligned movement, a considerable achievement in those days. When there was talk of an adversarial action on human rights during my tenure of office in Geneva (2004-2007), I remember the solidarity of the Asian Group, and how delegation upon delegation stood with Sri Lanka, recalling Sri Lanka’s support extended to them in times of their need. There was noticeable silence from our Big Neighbour due to the Tamil Nadu factor and also India’s moving towards accommodation on human rights with the West.
The Pompeo visit to South Asia in the dying days of the Trump Presidency, had as objective the consolidation of the US- India security partnership in the Indo- Pacific. News reports quoted the Pentagon that bilateral defence sales were at an all time high, with “India operating US sourced platforms such as P-8s, C-130Js, C-17s, AH-64s, CH-47s and M777 howitzers “and the bilateral strategic partnership advancing at a “historic” pace based on inter-operability and sharing of aerial intelligence. This visit was also to consolidate the Quad, a security pact between US, India, Japan and Australia openly proclaimed by the US as intending to counter Chinese “aggression” in the Indo Pacific region. By taking a leadership role in the Quad, India has signaled how far it has moved from the basic principles of Panchaseela and Non-alignment, which has been commented on in numerous articles.
In this context, it was understandable that ahead of the Pompeo visit to Sri Lanka, there had been considerable press attention and debate in the island on India-Sri Lanka relations and adverse public reaction to the military buildup in the region. There were also some domestic political maneuvers to shift India’s traditional support to Sri Lanka being conditional on the “full implementation of the 13th Amendment”. Some believe Foreign Secretary Colombage’s kow- tow to India describing the island’s new maritime security policy as putting “India first” was part of such manoeuvres which however failed to shift the Indian traditional position. But if it was intended to suggest something more, i.e. that Sri Lanka should function within India’s security umbrella, such a policy shift would have had short shrift in domestic public opinion due to many historical circumstances. To take just one example, during the “decade of confrontation” with India in the 1980’s, India had made clear its suspicions of Sri Lanka’s proximity to the US and alleged US interest in the Trincomalee oil tanks and VOA. Now it seems, India has made a 100 % turn, seeking instead to strengthen its bilateral security partnership with the US! So the question to be asked is why Sri Lanka should veer from side to side as the new “Cold War” looms in Asia, and what would that imply for the independence and credibility of our foreign policy?
It was widely criticized that Mr Pompeo used his stopover in Sri Lanka to go on the offensive against China, calling the Chinese Communist Party a “predator” – unusual diplomatic practice, embarrassing to the hosts during an official visit. In this background it was good to hear that President Rajapaksa in his meeting with Mr Pompeo was forthright and courteous in explaining Sri Lanka’s foreign policy of neutrality and friendship with all while correcting the allegation of “debt trap” often leveled against China . Foreign Minister Dinesh Gunawardene also underlined the three pillars of “neutrality, non-alignment and friendship with all” while highlighting the positive elements of the US-Sri Lanka relationship, the shared values and longstanding people to people contacts. Both President Rajapaksa and Foreign Minister Dinesh Gunawardena welcomed American economic cooperation, trade and investment however there was no mention of any signing of the pending MCC or SOFA agreements which some believe are essential elements of the US Indo-Pacific strategy.
As for the Quad, Sri Lanka’s support so far has been limited to hosting conferences on maritime security, and this too is receding, from the previous gala event under Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe now down to a NGO conference last week by Pathfinder Foundation with funding from Japan, seeking to facilitate free and unimpeded navigation for all parties in the Indo-Pacific, without exception and exclusion (a far cry indeed from Mr Pompeo’s China-bashing). Unfortunately for this talk-fest by academics and retired diplomats, issues of maritime security were overshadowed by an environmental crisis when for the first time in Sri Lanka, a pod of some 120 short fin pilot whales beached in Kalutara. Environmental activists charged that acoustic threats from navy sonars during the Malabar naval drills by the Quad in the vicinity had disoriented the marine mammals. Indeed, in the US, pressure from law suits by environmental activists and judicial orders have already led to the US navy codifying a number of important operational safeguards for training exercises using sonars including underwater surveillance on safety for marine mammals, 25 mile exclusion zones around coastlines, biologically important areas, marine sanctuaries etc. An international campaign for a global ban on LFA sonars affecting marine mammal gathering areas is gaining momentum. Fortunately the Sri Lanka navy took a leading role in the Kalutara whale rescue operation and had not participated in the Quad drills, this time around.
While there is no support in Sri Lanka for US led militarization in the Indian Ocean, it should be noted that the American brand is strong in Sri Lanka encompassing both high tech and cultural assets ranging from music and film to food and clothing. America’s image abroad will benefit from the Biden Presidency which will return the US to its moral leadership in the global order including on issues such as climate change and human rights. However, our missions in New York and Geneva will have to stay alert for consequences in the aftermath of the Sri Lanka withdrawal from resolutions agreed under the previous US Democratic administration in 2015. The Foreign Ministry should be planning ahead with relevant Ministries and institutions to prepare for the upcoming HRC sessions and to place on record Sri Lanka’s implementation of assurances on human rights including upto date reporting under HRC mechanisms .
There is another worry and that has to do with analyzing the rationale for the military build-up in India. Beefing up the Indian air force seems a key strategy with the purchase of new Raffale jets, completing of mountain tunnels to enable quick reinforcements to the Northern border, adding to all the new hardware from the US and now consolidating aerial intelligence cooperation with the new BECA agreement, are these all elements of a larger plan not just for defence but perhaps preparations for an offensive? The underlying concern is that we are living in historic times, with major changes taking place on borders which would have been considered unthinkable a few years ago. There is Brexit and the breaking away from the European Union, more recently in Ngarno Karabakh territory has been conceded to Azerbaijan as a result of military force. While President Trump is still in office, Israel is moving forward on the Trump Peace Plan in the Middle East to extend its frontiers over the Golan Heights and occupied territories in the West Bank and Gaza while building of new settlements in East Jerusalem has begun. In South Asia, India has withdrawn the special constitutional status accorded since decades to Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, and now recently Pakistan has announced plans to make those parts of Kashmir administered by it into a separate Province which will be seen as a provocation by the Indian side. Is the stage being set for a historic military confrontation over Kashmir?
(Sarala Fernando, retired from the Foreign Ministry as Additional Secretary and her last Ambassadorial appointment was as Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva. Her Ph.D was on India-Sri Lanka relations and she writes now on foreign policy, diplomacy and protection of heritage).
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Islamophobia and the threat to democratic development
There’s an ill more dangerous and pervasive than the Coronavirus that’s currently sweeping Sri Lanka. That is the fear to express one’s convictions. Across the public sector of the country in particular many persons holding high office are stringently regulating and controlling the voices of their consciences and this bodes ill for all and the country.
The corrupting impact of fear was discussed in this column a couple of weeks ago when dealing with the military coup in Myanmar. It stands to the enduring credit of ousted Myanmarese Head of Government Aung San Suu Kyi that she, perhaps for the first time in the history of modern political thought, singled out fear, and not power, as the principal cause of corruption within the individual; powerful or otherwise.
To be sure, power corrupts but the corrupting impact of fear is graver and more devastating. For instance, the fear in a person holding ministerial office or in a senior public sector official, that he would lose position and power as a result of speaking out his convictions and sincere beliefs on matters of the first importance, would lead to a country’s ills going unaddressed and uncorrected.
Besides, the individual concerned would be devaluing himself in the eyes of all irrevocably and revealing himself to be a person who would be willing to compromise his moral integrity for petty worldly gain or a ‘mess of pottage’. This happens all the while in Lankan public life. Some of those who have wielded and are wielding immense power in Sri Lanka leave very much to be desired from these standards.
It could be said that fear has prevented Sri Lanka from growing in every vital respect over the decades and has earned for itself the notoriety of being a directionless country.
All these ills and more are contained in the current controversy in Sri Lanka over the disposal of the bodies of Covid victims, for example. The Sri Lankan polity has no choice but to abide by scientific advice on this question. Since authorities of the standing of even the WHO have declared that the burial of the bodies of those dying of Covid could not prove to be injurious to the wider public, the Sri Lankan health authorities could go ahead and sanction the burying of the bodies concerned. What’s preventing the local authorities from taking this course since they claim to be on the side of science? Who or what are they fearing? This is the issue that’s crying out to be probed and answered.
Considering the need for absolute truthfulness and honesty on the part of all relevant persons and quarters in matters such as these, the latter have no choice but to resign from their positions if they are prevented from following the dictates of their consciences. If they are firmly convinced that burials could bring no harm, they are obliged to take up the position that burials should be allowed.
If any ‘higher authority’ is preventing them from allowing burials, our ministers and officials are conscience-bound to renounce their positions in protest, rather than behave compromisingly and engage in ‘double think’ and ‘double talk’. By adopting the latter course they are helping none but keeping the country in a state of chronic uncertainty, which is a handy recipe for social instabiliy and division.
In the Sri Lankan context, the failure on the part of the quarters that matter to follow scientific advice on the burials question could result in the aggravation of Islamophobia, or hatred of the practitioners of Islam, in the country. Sri Lanka could do without this latter phobia and hatred on account of its implications for national stability and development. The 30 year war against separatist forces was all about the prevention by military means of ‘nation-breaking’. The disastrous results for Sri Lanka from this war are continuing to weigh it down and are part of the international offensive against Sri Lanka in the UNHCR.
However, Islamophobia is an almost world wide phenomenon. It was greatly strengthened during Donald Trump’s presidential tenure in the US. While in office Trump resorted to the divisive ruling strategy of quite a few populist authoritarian rulers of the South. Essentially, the manoeuvre is to divide and rule by pandering to the racial prejudices of majority communities.
It has happened continually in Sri Lanka. In the initial post-independence years and for several decades after, it was a case of some populist politicians of the South whipping-up anti-Tamil sentiments. Some Tamil politicians did likewise in respect of the majority community. No doubt, both such quarters have done Sri Lanka immeasurable harm. By failing to follow scientific advice on the burial question and by not doing what is right, Sri Lanka’s current authorities are opening themselves to the charge that they are pandering to religious extremists among the majority community.
The murderous, destructive course of action adopted by some extremist sections among Muslim communities world wide, including of course Sri Lanka, has not earned the condemnation it deserves from moderate Muslims who make-up the preponderant majority in the Muslim community. It is up to moderate opinion in the latter collectivity to come out more strongly and persuasively against religious extremists in their midst. It will prove to have a cementing and unifying impact among communities.
It is not sufficiently appreciated by governments in the global South in particular that by voicing for religious and racial unity and by working consistently towards it, they would be strengthening democratic development, which is an essential condition for a country’s growth in all senses.
A ‘divided house’ is doomed to fall; this is the lesson of history. ‘National security’ cannot be had without human security and peaceful living among communities is central to the latter. There cannot be any ‘double talk’ or ‘politically correct’ opinions on this question. Truth and falsehood are the only valid categories of thought and speech.
Those in authority everywhere claiming to be democratic need to adopt a scientific outlook on this issue as well. Studies conducted on plural societies in South Asia, for example, reveal that the promotion of friendly, cordial ties among communities invariably brings about healing among estranged groups and produces social peace. This is the truth that is waiting to be acted upon.
Pakistan’s love of Sri Lanka
By Sanjeewa Jayaweera
It was on 3rd January 1972 that our family arrived in Karachi from Moscow. Our departure from Moscow had been delayed for a few weeks due to the military confrontation between Pakistan and India. It ended on 16th December 1971. After that, international flights were not permitted for some time.
The contrast between Moscow and Karachi was unbelievable. First and foremost, Moscow’s temperature was near minus 40 degrees centigrade, while in Karachi, it was sunny and a warm 28 degrees centigrade. However, what struck us most was the extreme warmth with which the airport authorities greeted our family. As my father was a diplomat, we were quickly ushered to the airport’s VIP Lounge. We were in transit on our way to Rawalpindi, the airport serving the capital of Islamabad.
We quickly realized that the word “we are from Sri Lanka” opened all doors just as saying “open sesame” gained entry to Aladdin’s cave! The broad smile, extreme courtesy, and genuine warmth we received from the Pakistani people were unbelievable.
This was all to do with Mrs Sirima Bandaranaike’s decision to allow Pakistani aircraft to land in Colombo to refuel on the way to Dhaka in East Pakistan during the military confrontation between Pakistan and India. It was a brave decision by Mrs Bandaranaike (Mrs B), and the successive governments and Sri Lanka people are still enjoying the fruits of it. Pakistan has been a steadfast and loyal supporter of our country. They have come to our assistance time and again in times of great need when many have turned their back on us. They have indeed been an “all-weather” friend of our country.
Getting back to 1972, I was an early beneficiary of Pakistani people’s love for Sri Lankans. I failed the entrance exam to gain entry to the only English medium school in Islamabad! However, when I met the Principal, along with my father, he said, “Sanjeewa, although you failed the entrance exam, I will this time make an exception as Sri Lankans are our dear friends.” After that, the joke around the family dinner table was that I owed my education in Pakistan to Mrs B!
At school, my brother and I were extended a warm welcome and always greeted “our good friends from Sri Lanka.” I felt when playing cricket for our college; our runs were cheered more loudly than of others.
One particular incident that I remember well was when the Embassy received a telex from the Foreign inistry. It requested that our High Commissioner seek an immediate meeting with the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mr Zulifikar Ali Bhutto (ZB), and convey a message from Mrs B. The message requested that an urgent shipment of rice be dispatched to Sri Lanka as there would be an imminent rice shortage. As the Ambassador was not in the station, the responsibility devolved on my father.
It usually takes about a week or more to get an audience with the Prime Minister (PM) of a foreign country due to their busy schedule. However, given the urgency, my father spoke to the Foreign Ministry’s Permanent Sectary, who fortunately was our neighbour and sought an urgent appointment. My father received a call from the PM’s secretary around 10 P.M asking him to come over to the PM’s residence. My father met ZB around midnight. ZB was about to retire to bed and, as such, was in his pyjamas and gown enjoying a cigar! He had greeted my father and had asked, “Mr Jayaweera, what can we do for great friend Madam Bandaranaike?. My father conveyed the message from Colombo and quietly mentioned that there would be riots in the country if there is no rice!
ZB had immediately got the Food Commissioner of Pakistan on the line and said, “I want a shipload of rice to be in Colombo within the next 72 hours!” The Food Commissioner reverted within a few minutes, saying that nothing was available and the last export shipment had left the port only a few hours ago to another country. ZB had instructed to turn the ship around and send it to Colombo. This despite protests from the Food Commissioner about terms and conditions of the Letter of Credit prohibiting non-delivery. Sri Lanka got its delivery of rice!
The next was the visit of Mrs B to Pakistan. On arrival in Rawalpindi airport, she was given a hero’s welcome, which Pakistan had previously only offered to President Gaddafi of Libya, who financially backed Pakistan with his oil money. That day, I missed school and accompanied my parents to the airport. On our way, we witnessed thousands of people had gathered by the roadside to welcome Mrs B.
When we walked to the airport’s tarmac, thousands of people were standing in temporary stands waving Sri Lanka and Pakistan flags and chanting “Sri Lanka Pakistan Zindabad.” The noise emanating from the crowd was as loud and passionate as the cheering that the Pakistani cricket team received during a test match. It was electric!
I believe she was only the second head of state given the privilege of addressing both assemblies of Parliament. The other being Gaddafi. There was genuine affection from Mrs B amongst the people of Pakistan.
I always remember the indefatigable efforts of Mr Abdul Haffez Kardar, a cabinet minister and the President of the Pakistan Cricket Board. From around 1973 onwards, he passionately championed Sri Lanka’s cause to be admitted as a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) and granted test status. Every year, he would propose at the ICC’s annual meeting, but England and Australia’s veto kept us out until 1981.
I always felt that our Cricket Board made a mistake by not inviting Pakistan to play our inaugural test match. We should have appreciated Mr Kardar and Pakistan’s efforts. In 1974 the Pakistan board invited our team for a tour involving three test matches and a few first-class games. Most of those who played in our first test match was part of that tour, and no doubt gained significant exposure playing against a highly talented Pakistani team.
Several Pakistani greats were part of the Pakistan and India team that played a match soon after the Central Bank bomb in Colombo to prove that it was safe to play cricket in Colombo. It was a magnificent gesture by both Pakistan and India. Our greatest cricket triumph was in Pakistan when we won the World Cup in 1996. I am sure the players and those who watched the match on TV will remember the passionate support our team received that night from the Pakistani crowd. It was like playing at home!
I also recall reading about how the Pakistani government air freighted several Multi Barrell artillery guns and ammunition to Sri Lanka when the A rmy camp in Jaffna was under severe threat from the LTTE. This was even more important than the shipload of rice that ZB sent. This was crucial as most other countries refused to sell arms to our country during the war.
Time and again, Pakistan has steadfastly supported our country’s cause at the UNHCR. No doubt this year, too, their diplomats will work tirelessly to assist our country.
We extend a warm welcome to Mr Imran Khan, the Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is a truly inspirational individual who was undoubtedly an excellent cricketer. Since retirement from cricket, he has decided to get involved in politics, and after several years of patiently building up his support base, he won the last parliamentary elections. I hope that just as much as he galvanized Sri Lankan cricketers, his political journey would act as a catalyst for people like Kumar Sangakkara and Mahela Jayawardene to get involved in politics. Cricket has been called a “gentleman’s game.” Whilst politics is far from it!.
Covid-19 health rules disregarded at entertainment venues?
Believe me, seeing certain videos, on social media, depicting action, on the dance floor, at some of these entertainment venues, got me wondering whether this Coronavirus pandemic is REAL!
To those having a good time, at these particular venues, and, I guess, the management, as well, what the world is experiencing now doesn’t seem to be their concerned.
Obviously, such irresponsible behaviour could create more problems for those who are battling to halt the spread of Covid-19, and the new viriant of Covid, in our part of the world.
The videos, on display, on social media, show certain venues, packed to capacity – with hardly anyone wearing a mask, and social distancing…only a dream..
How can one think of social distancing while gyrating, on a dance floor, that is over crowded!
If this trend continues, it wouldn’t be a surprise if Coronavirus makes its presence felt…at such venues.
And, then, what happens to the entertainment scene, and those involved in this field, especially the musicians? No work, whatsoever!
Lots of countries have closed nightclubs, and venues, where people gather, in order to curtail the spread of this deadly virus that has already claimed the lives of thousands.
Thailand did it and the country is still having lots of restrictions, where entertainment is concerned, and that is probably the reason why Thailand has been able to control the spread of the Coronavirus.
With a population of over 69 million, they have had (so far), a little over 25,000 cases, and 83 deaths, while we, with a population of around 21 million, have over 80,000 cases, and more than 450 deaths.
I’m not saying we should do away with entertainment – totally – but we need to follow a format, connected with the ‘new normal,’ where masks and social distancing are mandatory requirements at these venues. And, dancing, I believe, should be banned, at least temporarily, as one can’t maintain the required social distance, while on the dance floor, especially after drinks.
Police spokesman DIG Ajith Rohana keeps emphasising, on TV, radio, and in the newspapers, the need to adhere to the health regulations, now in force, and that those who fail to do so would be penalised.
He has also stated that plainclothes officers would move around to apprehend such offenders.
Perhaps, he should instruct his officers to pay surprise visits to some of these entertainment venues.
He would certainly have more than a bus load of offenders to be whisked off for PCR/Rapid Antigen tests!
I need to quote what Dr. H.T. Wickremasinghe said in his article, published in The Island of Tuesday, February 16th, 2021:
“…let me conclude, while emphasising the need to continue our general public health measures, such as wearing masks, social distancing, and avoiding crowded gatherings, to reduce the risk of contact with an infected person.
“There is no science to beat common sense.”
But…do some of our folks have this thing called COMMON SENSE!