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Piper Alpha and Titanic – Safety lessons for Oil & Gas Industry



By Captain Chandra Godakanda Arachchi

Master Mariner, Gladstone LNG Australia

S. S. Titanic was said to be unsinkable. Similarly the oil platform, Piper Alpha, owned by Occidental Petroleum, 110 miles from the Port of Aberdeen, operated in extreme weather conditions for most part of the year and, therefore, was considered indestructible. The sheer size of the structure also contributed to this view. The sinking of Titanic has been the maritime disaster of all time and the Piper Alpha disaster where 70 percent of the 226-member crew on board, in the North Sea, is said to be the worst off-shore oil platform tragedy of all time. A series of explosions caused some sections of 300-foot tall structure to collapse within three hours. It became a flaming ball of twisted metal.

Piper Alpha was producing 30,000 tonnes of oil per day, 10 percent of the British North Sea oil production. The shipping industry witnessed an unprecedented regulatory regime post the grounding of Exxon Valdez, in Alaska, in 1989, causing a massive crude oil spill; similarly Piper Alpha disaster led to the introduction of significant regulatory changes in the oil and gas industry in terms of safety improvement and managing “Permit to work” system.

Piper Alpha, which operated 12 years from 1976, was first built for oil production but modified for gas production as well. Piper Alpha was connected to a network of oil platforms (Claymore and Tartan).

Almost all survivors from Piper Alpha were those who jumped into the burning sea from a height about three hundred feet which required a lot of courage.

What really happed on 06th July 1988. Here is the story in brief!

It was just another summer night in North Sea, 06 July, 1988. Some 226 crew on board Piper Alpha were having another night shift with usual problems the control room had to deal with.

Piper Alpha had two gas pumps (centrifugal compressors), A & B, to boost gas pressure for delivering gas to Flotta, an island terminal off Scotland. There had been two work permits issued during the day shift, one for pressure safety valve (PSV) servicing and the other for overhauling compressor A; the work would have taken two weeks. The crew had removed the PSV for servicing and taken compressor A out of service only by isolating power, which is illegal. The industry now requires full isolation, key common lockout by workers, permit holder and permit authority so that everyone involved in work has to unlock before being able to start the compressor. Crew could not complete servicing PSV as expected by 1800 hrs and the engineers decided to postpone reinstating the PSV until morning and fitted a blind flange (metal plate) where the PSV had been removed. (It was probably not a pressure rated flange). The overhauling of the compressor A had not begun during the day shift, and this was noted in the work permit form. When the engineer concerned arrived in the control room to hand over the permits, the supervisor was busy and therefore he failed to inform the latter that the PSV was out of service. He, however, made notes on the permit form, returned two permits and knocked off for the day. Unfortunately, two permits got separated in the control room. There could have been many permits on that day due to a new gas line being installed during weeks. Piper Alpha was not shut down for gas line installation as the installation could be managed with control measures as stipulated. A critical aspect to note here is that nobody in the control room had an update of incomplete PSV work. In the mean time, the diesel fire-fighting pumps had been switched to ‘manual from ‘auto’ as a control measure to prevent divers who were at work being sucked in case the fire pumps started in ‘auto’ mode.

At 2145 hrs, the compressor B tripped and failed to restart despite repeated attempts by the control room. Now, there was another risk looming due to tripping the compressor. In case of failure to get the compressor started within a certain period of time, the platform runs the risk of losing gas pressure, which is required to run the gas generator. The consequence of shutting down the gas generator is huge with platform shutting down including drilling. There is also the likelihood of the drill head getting stuck. Getting everything back online is a time consuming and that involves a huge cost. Therefore with this scenario in mind, the shift engineer traced the permit for compressor A and noticed that overhaul work had not begun but failed to realise PSV was out of service due to the unfortunate separation of permits. At 2155 hrs, the supervisor assumed it was safe to start the compressor A and ordered reinstating power and got it online. As the PSV was located about five metres above the compressor, the crew failed to notice the missing PSV. As the compressor started at 2157 hrs due to the sudden rise in pressure, gas started to leak from the temporary blind flange. A huge amount of gas leaked and alarms were going off in the control room continuously; this was followed by an explosion. The supervisor immediately activated the emergency shutdown (ESD), which shut off safety valves (XVs) of the huge oil and gas production risers of Piper Alpha from sea bed, isolating Piper Alpha, but it appears that it did not shut down the connections to other network oil platforms. The explosion did rupture the fire walls in oil separator area, which caused an oil fire to erupt.

It was believed that at 2204 hrs only two crew members had been killed due to the blast. There had been similar fires in certain other rigs but they had been doused. When the fire started, fire fighting pumps should have started, but unfortunately pumps had been switched to ‘manual’ as was said previously. Two brave members tried to and start the pumps manually, but they failed and were never seen again. At this stage, emergency procedures simply collapsed and the Rig Manager who was supposed to coordinate the emergency from radio room sent a distress message, which was heard by the two nearby rigs, Claymore and Tartan. No attempt was made to announce the distress message over the public address system. No one told the crew what to do. Workers were supposed to gather at life boat deck and wait for instructions in case of emergency, but the fire prevented them from reaching the muster point and, therefore over 100 crew members waited in fireproof accommodation block beneath the helicopter pad and waited for helicopter rescue. However, the wind was blowing the heavy smoke over the helicopter pad and it was impossible for the helicopter to land. Accommodation block too gradually started to fill with smoke and even at this there was no attempt whatsoever to evacuate the crew to safety.

ESD had shut down oil and gas production, but oil in the separator continued to burn, and it eventually burnt itself out with the fire extinguishing itself, but Claymore continued to pump oil even though Claymore heard the May Day, and witnessed the flames of Piper Alpha from a distance. It was waiting instruction from on shore Occidental control room to shut down. Claymore repeatedly attempted to contact the shore control room for a long time but without success. Therefore the discharge pressure of Claymore and Tartan oil pumping fed oil through a damaged pipework to fire on Piper Alpha, adding more and more fuel to fire. Both Claymore and Tartan knew it was costly to restart the production from platform post ESD, and that perhaps led them to wait for instructions to shut down rather than taking decisions on their own.

There was another huge problem looming at 2218 hrs with oil fire heating the high pressure gas risers (on Piper Alpha) from Titan. Heat eventually damaged the pipe work of high pressure gas riser from Tartan, adding three tonnes of gas per second to already burning Piper Alpha. Most crew members were still alive. Some of them decided to jump into the burning sea from a ten-storey-high Piper Alpha prior to the second explosion. Those are the people who survived and 167 crew members were killed. More than 75% of the Piper Alpha facility was destroyed although it had been considered indestructible. Emergency response vessel Faros by luck happened to be there anchored closer to Piper Alpha. It attempted to start the fire pumps in a hurry, causing them to trip and this led to a 10-minute delay in operating them. The extendable gangway was unusually extremely slow and it took more than an hour to reach the deck with crew. It was too late. After the second explosion, Faros could not get closer to Piper Alpha due to intense heat and it manoeuvred away from Piper Alpha for its own safety.

Occidental Petroleum later destroyed the remains of Piper Alpha within a year, closed down the operation never to operate in the North Sea ever again. Investigators found that the safety culture on Piper Alpha had been superficial. CEO of Occidental Petroleum at a post-disaster press conference said that 06 July 06 was the first incident in twelve years since the commencement of operations, but the fact remains that a crew member had been killed in an accident four year prior to the Piper Alpha tragedy. That could have been an ideal opportunity for the company to review safety procedures on Piper Alpha. Had Occidental Petroleum been seriously committed to safety, the incident probably would not have occurred and 167 crew would not have been killed.

It is extremely important to comply with safety standards in oil and gas industry.

(The writer has nearly 25 years of experience in oil and gas industry in Australia)


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Islamophobia and the threat to democratic development



There’s an ill more dangerous and pervasive than the Coronavirus that’s currently sweeping Sri Lanka. That is the fear to express one’s convictions. Across the public sector of the country in particular many persons holding high office are stringently regulating and controlling the voices of their consciences and this bodes ill for all and the country.

The corrupting impact of fear was discussed in this column a couple of weeks ago when dealing with the military coup in Myanmar. It stands to the enduring credit of ousted Myanmarese Head of Government Aung San Suu Kyi that she, perhaps for the first time in the history of modern political thought, singled out fear, and not power, as the principal cause of corruption within the individual; powerful or otherwise.

To be sure, power corrupts but the corrupting impact of fear is graver and more devastating. For instance, the fear in a person holding ministerial office or in a senior public sector official, that he would lose position and power as a result of speaking out his convictions and sincere beliefs on matters of the first importance, would lead to a country’s ills going unaddressed and uncorrected.

Besides, the individual concerned would be devaluing himself in the eyes of all irrevocably and revealing himself to be a person who would be willing to compromise his moral integrity for petty worldly gain or a ‘mess of pottage’. This happens all the while in Lankan public life. Some of those who have wielded and are wielding immense power in Sri Lanka leave very much to be desired from these standards.

It could be said that fear has prevented Sri Lanka from growing in every vital respect over the decades and has earned for itself the notoriety of being a directionless country.

All these ills and more are contained in the current controversy in Sri Lanka over the disposal of the bodies of Covid victims, for example. The Sri Lankan polity has no choice but to abide by scientific advice on this question. Since authorities of the standing of even the WHO have declared that the burial of the bodies of those dying of Covid could not prove to be injurious to the wider public, the Sri Lankan health authorities could go ahead and sanction the burying of the bodies concerned. What’s preventing the local authorities from taking this course since they claim to be on the side of science? Who or what are they fearing? This is the issue that’s crying out to be probed and answered.

Considering the need for absolute truthfulness and honesty on the part of all relevant persons and quarters in matters such as these, the latter have no choice but to resign from their positions if they are prevented from following the dictates of their consciences. If they are firmly convinced that burials could bring no harm, they are obliged to take up the position that burials should be allowed.

If any ‘higher authority’ is preventing them from allowing burials, our ministers and officials are conscience-bound to renounce their positions in protest, rather than behave compromisingly and engage in ‘double think’ and ‘double talk’. By adopting the latter course they are helping none but keeping the country in a state of chronic uncertainty, which is a handy recipe for social instabiliy and division.

In the Sri Lankan context, the failure on the part of the quarters that matter to follow scientific advice on the burials question could result in the aggravation of Islamophobia, or hatred of the practitioners of Islam, in the country. Sri Lanka could do without this latter phobia and hatred on account of its implications for national stability and development. The 30 year war against separatist forces was all about the prevention by military means of ‘nation-breaking’. The disastrous results for Sri Lanka from this war are continuing to weigh it down and are part of the international offensive against Sri Lanka in the UNHCR.

However, Islamophobia is an almost world wide phenomenon. It was greatly strengthened during Donald Trump’s presidential tenure in the US. While in office Trump resorted to the divisive ruling strategy of quite a few populist authoritarian rulers of the South. Essentially, the manoeuvre is to divide and rule by pandering to the racial prejudices of majority communities.

It has happened continually in Sri Lanka. In the initial post-independence years and for several decades after, it was a case of some populist politicians of the South whipping-up anti-Tamil sentiments. Some Tamil politicians did likewise in respect of the majority community. No doubt, both such quarters have done Sri Lanka immeasurable harm. By failing to follow scientific advice on the burial question and by not doing what is right, Sri Lanka’s current authorities are opening themselves to the charge that they are pandering to religious extremists among the majority community.

The murderous, destructive course of action adopted by some extremist sections among Muslim communities world wide, including of course Sri Lanka, has not earned the condemnation it deserves from moderate Muslims who make-up the preponderant majority in the Muslim community. It is up to moderate opinion in the latter collectivity to come out more strongly and persuasively against religious extremists in their midst. It will prove to have a cementing and unifying impact among communities.

It is not sufficiently appreciated by governments in the global South in particular that by voicing for religious and racial unity and by working consistently towards it, they would be strengthening democratic development, which is an essential condition for a country’s growth in all senses.

A ‘divided house’ is doomed to fall; this is the lesson of history. ‘National security’ cannot be had without human security and peaceful living among communities is central to the latter. There cannot be any ‘double talk’ or ‘politically correct’ opinions on this question. Truth and falsehood are the only valid categories of thought and speech.

Those in authority everywhere claiming to be democratic need to adopt a scientific outlook on this issue as well. Studies conducted on plural societies in South Asia, for example, reveal that the promotion of friendly, cordial ties among communities invariably brings about healing among estranged groups and produces social peace. This is the truth that is waiting to be acted upon.

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Pakistan’s love of Sri Lanka



By Sanjeewa Jayaweera

It was on 3rd January 1972 that our family arrived in Karachi from Moscow. Our departure from Moscow had been delayed for a few weeks due to the military confrontation between Pakistan and India. It ended on 16th December 1971. After that, international flights were not permitted for some time.

The contrast between Moscow and Karachi was unbelievable. First and foremost, Moscow’s temperature was near minus 40 degrees centigrade, while in Karachi, it was sunny and a warm 28 degrees centigrade. However, what struck us most was the extreme warmth with which the airport authorities greeted our family. As my father was a diplomat, we were quickly ushered to the airport’s VIP Lounge. We were in transit on our way to Rawalpindi, the airport serving the capital of Islamabad.

We quickly realized that the word “we are from Sri Lanka” opened all doors just as saying “open sesame” gained entry to Aladdin’s cave! The broad smile, extreme courtesy, and genuine warmth we received from the Pakistani people were unbelievable.

This was all to do with Mrs Sirima Bandaranaike’s decision to allow Pakistani aircraft to land in Colombo to refuel on the way to Dhaka in East Pakistan during the military confrontation between Pakistan and India. It was a brave decision by Mrs Bandaranaike (Mrs B), and the successive governments and Sri Lanka people are still enjoying the fruits of it. Pakistan has been a steadfast and loyal supporter of our country. They have come to our assistance time and again in times of great need when many have turned their back on us. They have indeed been an “all-weather” friend of our country.

Getting back to 1972, I was an early beneficiary of Pakistani people’s love for Sri Lankans. I failed the entrance exam to gain entry to the only English medium school in Islamabad! However, when I met the Principal, along with my father, he said, “Sanjeewa, although you failed the entrance exam, I will this time make an exception as Sri Lankans are our dear friends.” After that, the joke around the family dinner table was that I owed my education in Pakistan to Mrs B!

At school, my brother and I were extended a warm welcome and always greeted “our good friends from Sri Lanka.” I felt when playing cricket for our college; our runs were cheered more loudly than of others.

One particular incident that I remember well was when the Embassy received a telex from the Foreign inistry. It requested that our High Commissioner seek an immediate meeting with the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mr Zulifikar Ali Bhutto (ZB), and convey a message from Mrs B. The message requested that an urgent shipment of rice be dispatched to Sri Lanka as there would be an imminent rice shortage. As the Ambassador was not in the station, the responsibility devolved on my father.

It usually takes about a week or more to get an audience with the Prime Minister (PM) of a foreign country due to their busy schedule. However, given the urgency, my father spoke to the Foreign Ministry’s Permanent Sectary, who fortunately was our neighbour and sought an urgent appointment. My father received a call from the PM’s secretary around 10 P.M asking him to come over to the PM’s residence. My father met ZB around midnight. ZB was about to retire to bed and, as such, was in his pyjamas and gown enjoying a cigar! He had greeted my father and had asked, “Mr Jayaweera, what can we do for great friend Madam Bandaranaike?. My father conveyed the message from Colombo and quietly mentioned that there would be riots in the country if there is no rice!

ZB had immediately got the Food Commissioner of Pakistan on the line and said, “I want a shipload of rice to be in Colombo within the next 72 hours!” The Food Commissioner reverted within a few minutes, saying that nothing was available and the last export shipment had left the port only a few hours ago to another country. ZB had instructed to turn the ship around and send it to Colombo. This despite protests from the Food Commissioner about terms and conditions of the Letter of Credit prohibiting non-delivery. Sri Lanka got its delivery of rice!

The next was the visit of Mrs B to Pakistan. On arrival in Rawalpindi airport, she was given a hero’s welcome, which Pakistan had previously only offered to President Gaddafi of Libya, who financially backed Pakistan with his oil money. That day, I missed school and accompanied my parents to the airport. On our way, we witnessed thousands of people had gathered by the roadside to welcome Mrs B.

When we walked to the airport’s tarmac, thousands of people were standing in temporary stands waving Sri Lanka and Pakistan flags and chanting “Sri Lanka Pakistan Zindabad.” The noise emanating from the crowd was as loud and passionate as the cheering that the Pakistani cricket team received during a test match. It was electric!

I believe she was only the second head of state given the privilege of addressing both assemblies of Parliament. The other being Gaddafi. There was genuine affection from Mrs B amongst the people of Pakistan.

I always remember the indefatigable efforts of Mr Abdul Haffez Kardar, a cabinet minister and the President of the Pakistan Cricket Board. From around 1973 onwards, he passionately championed Sri Lanka’s cause to be admitted as a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) and granted test status. Every year, he would propose at the ICC’s annual meeting, but England and Australia’s veto kept us out until 1981.

I always felt that our Cricket Board made a mistake by not inviting Pakistan to play our inaugural test match. We should have appreciated Mr Kardar and Pakistan’s efforts. In 1974 the Pakistan board invited our team for a tour involving three test matches and a few first-class games. Most of those who played in our first test match was part of that tour, and no doubt gained significant exposure playing against a highly talented Pakistani team.

Several Pakistani greats were part of the Pakistan and India team that played a match soon after the Central Bank bomb in Colombo to prove that it was safe to play cricket in Colombo. It was a magnificent gesture by both Pakistan and India. Our greatest cricket triumph was in Pakistan when we won the World Cup in 1996. I am sure the players and those who watched the match on TV will remember the passionate support our team received that night from the Pakistani crowd. It was like playing at home!

I also recall reading about how the Pakistani government air freighted several Multi Barrell artillery guns and ammunition to Sri Lanka when the A rmy camp in Jaffna was under severe threat from the LTTE. This was even more important than the shipload of rice that ZB sent. This was crucial as most other countries refused to sell arms to our country during the war.

Time and again, Pakistan has steadfastly supported our country’s cause at the UNHCR. No doubt this year, too, their diplomats will work tirelessly to assist our country.

We extend a warm welcome to Mr Imran Khan, the Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is a truly inspirational individual who was undoubtedly an excellent cricketer. Since retirement from cricket, he has decided to get involved in politics, and after several years of patiently building up his support base, he won the last parliamentary elections. I hope that just as much as he galvanized Sri Lankan cricketers, his political journey would act as a catalyst for people like Kumar Sangakkara and Mahela Jayawardene to get involved in politics. Cricket has been called a “gentleman’s game.” Whilst politics is far from it!.

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Covid-19 health rules disregarded at entertainment venues?



Believe me, seeing certain videos, on social media, depicting action, on the dance floor, at some of these entertainment venues, got me wondering whether this Coronavirus pandemic is REAL!

To those having a good time, at these particular venues, and, I guess, the management, as well, what the world is experiencing now doesn’t seem to be their concerned.

Obviously, such irresponsible behaviour could create more problems for those who are battling to halt the spread of Covid-19, and the new viriant of Covid, in our part of the world.

The videos, on display, on social media, show certain venues, packed to capacity – with hardly anyone wearing a mask, and social distancing…only a dream..

How can one think of social distancing while gyrating, on a dance floor, that is over crowded!

If this trend continues, it wouldn’t be a surprise if Coronavirus makes its presence felt…at such venues.

And, then, what happens to the entertainment scene, and those involved in this field, especially the musicians? No work, whatsoever!

Lots of countries have closed nightclubs, and venues, where people gather, in order to curtail the spread of this deadly virus that has already claimed the lives of thousands.

Thailand did it and the country is still having lots of restrictions, where entertainment is concerned, and that is probably the reason why Thailand has been able to control the spread of the Coronavirus.

With a population of over 69 million, they have had (so far), a little over 25,000 cases, and 83 deaths, while we, with a population of around 21 million, have over 80,000 cases, and more than 450 deaths.

I’m not saying we should do away with entertainment – totally – but we need to follow a format, connected with the ‘new normal,’ where masks and social distancing are mandatory requirements at these venues. And, dancing, I believe, should be banned, at least temporarily, as one can’t maintain the required social distance, while on the dance floor, especially after drinks.

Police spokesman DIG Ajith Rohana keeps emphasising, on TV, radio, and in the newspapers, the need to adhere to the health regulations, now in force, and that those who fail to do so would be penalised.

He has also stated that plainclothes officers would move around to apprehend such offenders.

Perhaps, he should instruct his officers to pay surprise visits to some of these entertainment venues.

He would certainly have more than a bus load of offenders to be whisked off for PCR/Rapid Antigen tests!

I need to quote what Dr. H.T. Wickremasinghe said in his article, published in The Island of Tuesday, February 16th, 2021:

“…let me conclude, while emphasising the need to continue our general public health measures, such as wearing masks, social distancing, and avoiding crowded gatherings, to reduce the risk of contact with an infected person.

“There is no science to beat common sense.”

But…do some of our folks have this thing called COMMON SENSE!

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